Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Tiempo de espera green card de hermanos de ciudadano La peticiÃ ³n de una tarjeta de residencia, conocida como green card, que realiza un ciudadano americano para su hermano o hermana es uno de los trmites migratorios que ms tarda, desde los cinco hasta los veinte aÃ ±os de espera. AquÃ le explicamos el por quÃ ©. Bajo la ley de InmigraciÃ ³n, el Congreso de los Estados Unidos limita el nÃ ºmero de visas que se emiten de acuerdo al estatus del peticionario (esposa, hijo/a soltero/a, padres, hermano/a, hijo/a casado/a) y a su paÃ s de origen. El tiempo de espera depende entonces de estos dos factores: origen y categorÃ a. Los tiempos de espera dependen de la nacionalidad del pedido y de la relaciÃ ³n con el ciudadano, ya que cada paÃ s tiene una cuota lÃ mite y cada categorÃ a un nÃ ºmero determinado de visas otorgadas anualmente. Los hermanos y hermanas de los ciudadanos pertenecen a la categorÃ a F4, la Ã ºltima de las categorÃ as de preferencia familiar: El nÃ ºmero total de visas otorgadas para esta categorÃ a en el aÃ ±o 2018 ascendÃ an a las 65.000 con un tiempo de espera promedio de diez aÃ ±os, con menos y ms aÃ ±os dependiendo del caso. En esta categorÃ a estn incluidos los hermanos/as biolÃ ³gicos, los hermanos por adopciÃ ³n y los hermanastros/as. Si el consulado tiene duda acerca de la relaciÃ ³n entre el ciudadano y el beneficiario, puede solicitar una prueba de ADN. La espera Como norma, los servicios de ciudadanÃ a e inmigraciÃ ³n de los Estados Unidos (USCIS) tramitan las peticiones de tarjetas de residencia en orden de llegada de la peticiÃ ³n. La espera promedio es de diez aÃ ±os. Pero hay paÃ ses de origen cuyas visas se demoran ms que las otras: MÃ ©xico, China, India y Filipinas, cuyas esperas a veces ascienden a los veinte aÃ ±os. Es importante aclarar que no todos los casos son iguales y no todas las visas de las personas del mismo paÃ s de origen tardan el mismo tiempo. La clave es la fecha en la que la peticiÃ ³n fue aprobada (fecha de prioridad). Para que haya claridad, en el 2018 habÃ a 65.000 visas para otorgar pero miles de ms peticiones. Las que no clasifican en el cupo anual pasan al aÃ ±o siguiente, y asÃ sucesivamente hasta que obtienen su tarjeta de residencia. De ahÃ la espera. Vale la pena anotar que hay mucho rumor y desinformaciÃ ³n acerca de los tiempos de espera; siempre consulte las fuentes oficiales y no se deje guiar por lo que oye de otras personas. Cada caso es diferente. Para estar al corriente de sus tiempos de espera puede consultar la pgina de USCIS con su nÃ ºmero de caso a la mano. Breve descripciÃ ³n del proceso Para aclarar dudas y ayudarle a entender el proceso sepa que para pedir una green card para su hermano/a hay que: Ser ciudadano americano y haber cumplido ya los 21 aÃ ±os de edadTener solvencia econÃ ³mica para patrocinar al familiarLlenar y enviar el formulario I-130 Estar en contacto con el Centro Nacional de VisasEntender que una solicitud aprobada no es lo mismo que una visa aprobadaSaber quÃ © es la fecha de prioridadRevisar cada mes el BoletÃ n de Visas del Departamento de Estado y comprobar quÃ © fecha se est gestionando para calcular cunto tiempo ms queda para recibir la green cardRevisar el affidavit of supportÃ y tener claro sus requisitosPedir ayuda a un abogado si hay dudas en cÃ ³mo proceder Por Ã ºltimo: situaciones problemticas Hermano indocumentado: el problema con un hermano/a indocumentado en territorio de los Estados Unidos es que este/a no podrÃ a ajustar su estatus y podrÃ a aplicarse el castigo de los tres y de los diez aÃ ±os en el momento en que sale del paÃ s a presentarse a la entrevista en el consulado.PeticiÃ ³n negada: Si la peticiÃ ³n por una green card para su hermano/a fue negada, revise aquÃ las posibles causas.
Monday, March 2, 2020
How to Setup and Use SSH on a Raspberry PI SSH is a secure method of logging onto a remote computer. If your Pi is networked, then this can be a handy way of operating it from another computer or just copying files to or from it. First, you have to install the SSH service. This is done by this command: sudo apt-get install ssh After a couple of minutes, this will be complete. You can start the daemon (Unix name for a service) with this command from the terminal: sudo /etc/init.d/ssh start This init.d is used to start other daemons. For example, if you have Apache, MySQL, Samba etc. You can also stop the service with stop or restart it with restart. Have It Start at Bootup To set it up so the ssh server starts every time the Pi boots up, run this command once: sudo update-rc.d ssh defaults You can check that it worked by forcing your Pi to reboot with the reboot command: sudo reboot Then after rebooting try to connect to it using Putty or WinSCP (details below). Powering Down and Rebooting Its possible to corrupt your SD card with power offs before it halts. The result: reinstall everything. Only power down once you have fully shut down your Pi. Given its low power usage and little heat given off, you could probably leave it running 24x7. If you want to shut it down, use the shutdown command: sudo shutdown -h now Change -h to -r and it does the same as sudo reboot. Putty and WinSCP If youre accessing your Pi from the command line of a Windows/Linux or Mac PC then use Putty or the commercial (but free for private use) Tunnelier. Both are great for general browsing around your Pis folders and copying files to or from a Windows PC. Download them from these URLs: Putty Download PageWinSCP Download PageTunnelier: Powerful free to use Windows SFTP etc. Your Pi needs to be connected to your network before you use Putty or WinSCP and you need to know its IP address. On my network, my Pi is on 192.168.1.69. You can find yours by typing in /sbin/ifconfig and on the 2nd line of the output, youll see inet addr: followed by your IP address. For Putty, its easiest to download putty.exe or the zip file of all the exes and put them in a folder. When you run putty it pops up a configuration Window. Enter your IP address in the input field where it says Host Name (or IP address) and enter pi or any name there. Now click the save button then the open button at the bottom. Youll have to login into your pi but now you can use it as if you were actually there. This can be quite useful, as its far easier to cut and paste long text strings in via a putty terminal. Try running this command: ps ax That shows a list of processes running on your pi. These include ssh (the two sshd) and Samba (nmbd and smbd) and many others. PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND858 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd866 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/nmbd -D887 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/smbd -D1092 ? Ss 0:00 sshd: pi [priv] WinSCP We find it most useful to set it up in two screen mode rather than in explorer mode but its easily changed in the Preferences. Also in preferences under Integration/Applications change the path to the putty.exe so you can easily jump into putty. When you connect to the pi, it starts at your home directory which is /home/pi. Click on the two .. to view the folder above and do it once more to get to the root. You can see all of the 20 Linux folders. After youve used a terminal for a while youll see a hidden file .bash_history (not that well hidden!). This is a text file of your command history with all the commands youve used before so copy it, edit out the stuff you dont want and keep the useful commands somewhere safe.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Major factors in managing construction of house - Assignment Example The completion of any project is the successful conglomeration of many factors. Construction of house is also no exception to this. The following factors must be taken care of by the project manager in the ensuring that all activities are completed in time. License from the authority for the construction Availability of wood, nail, gum, plumbing material, wiring material, curtain, carpet etc Availability of Labour Efficient use of resources Completion of each activity in time so that the project can be finished as desired (i)Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of network and the WBS. Advantages of Networking Helps the project manager to concentrate their attention to the critical activities and their completion in time Provides the best way of planning and scheduling a project Give complete information about duration, slackness etc of activities Suggest areas for increasing efficiency and reduction of costs Helps to formulate new schedules and when the existing schedule cannot be met Minimizes delay in completion of the project Disadvantages of Networking The realistic time estimates are not obtained. In the case of new and non-repetitive type of projects, the time estimates are more often mere guesses It is not easy to develop a clear logical network in some cases The level of network details cannot be determined properly in some cases. The level of details varies from planner to planner depending on the judgment and experience Lack of trained personnel in the network methodology. Advantages of WBS Allows the project manager to understand the scope of the project Facilitates the manager to understand the various activities, sub activities and their completion time It provides the frame work to understand the planning and controlling cost of the project It can be revised as and when required by the manger Disadvantages of WBS In case of some projects, certain activities cannot be delineated from other activities because of overlapping The exact deliverables need not be estimated with accuracy in case of all projects The philosophy of WBS preparation may change from firm to firm. (k) Integrate WBS and OBS for the project Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Performing Department Landscaping Foundation Siding Roofing Plumbing Finishing Project Manager (Andy) Plastering Framing Wiring Skylight TV Antenna Painting Make Curtain Lay Carpet Builder ( Joseph) X X Electrician (John) X X Plumber (Tony) X Handyman (
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Enhancing Motivation, Ethics and Values - Essay Example The number and severity of business scandals have resulted in the need to enhance the ethics and values of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s managers and leaders. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Conduct, mission statement or values policy statements should reflect the expectations of ethical behavior from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders. An ethical code serves not only the interests of the company, but has the broader purpose of fairness and justice towards all stakeholders associated with the company, state Kaptein & Schwartz (2007). It is important that business leaders need to follow the requirements of the stated ethical code, and accordingly manifest their professional behavior towards all stakeholders of the company. Federal regulations concerning the disclosure of written ethical codes of the corporation need to be complied with. Many large firms such as Enron, WorldCom, and HealthSouth have been found to have been unethically managed by their coporate executive officers, corporate finance officers and other top managers, which has been the main reason for regulators to investigate the root cause of ethical failures in companies. The lack of an ethical standard, benchmark or technique to measure the level of ethics in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations appear to have played a major role in these companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ failures (McGraw et al, 2008). Integrity is an important element of leadership. The authors develop a theory-based model for judging a corporate leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity, by addressing questions based on what the criteria for judging are, when integrity judgments are particularly important, who the judges are. The relevant set of moral values and norms of stakeholders which affect such judgments are enabled by three components of integrity criteria: laws, codes of conduct, and informal moral values and norms. Relevant stakeholders expect a corporate leader to abide by these ethical norms. Such an integrity judgment
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Cold War and post Cold War eras have brought with them many interesting aspects. New technologies initially meant for mass destruction filter down into the civilian world, making current lives easier. One example of this is the anti-lock braking systems of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s cars. Originally designed to slow fighter-planes on landing without skidding, these systems make it safer for parents to take their children on vacation. One less noted advancement the eras brought is a considerable amount of exciting and forewarning fiction. While most authors chose to warn of nuclear and post nuclear holocaust, one significant author chose a different approach. Tom Clancy chose to write of conventional warfare and sometimes unconventional enemies. Between his novel Red Storm Rising and Debt of Honor, Tom Clancy makes evident the changing face of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s enemies and threats, while staying true to issues that keep people interested in his books. Published in 1986, Red Storm Rising is Tom ClancyÃ¢â¬â¢s second novel dealing with the former Soviet Union as a potential enemy. This was a time when AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s finest tank and infantry units went on exercises in Germany fully armed with the expectation that the Russians could attack them at any time. This was also a time when the Soviets did the same exercises with the same amount of live ammunition. Therefore there was reason enough to worry about potential conflicts. Deep within the ocean waters, submarines played similar cat and mouse games with other submarines and surface ships. However some of these submarines were more dangerous then a whole army because they were fully loaded with nuclear missles. These facts were well know to the American public and made Red Storm Rising all the more real when it combined land and ocean warfare in a way that captivated millions of readers. The book begins as the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to provide their own oil is cut off by a terrorist attack. Right away it is noted that two very frightening events have just happened. Terrorism, for one, is a major scare tactic that can and does strike fear into millions. This was demonstrated by two suspected attacks in the U.S. recently (Bombing of Flight 800 and the Olympic Park bombing). Secondly, the threat of losing petroleum resources is enough to drive governments to drastic measures. This fact is evident in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the 1991 Gulf War. The leaders of the Soviet Union decided that the only way to prevent the total collapse of their economy and country was to seize the oil rich Middle East.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
1. [10 points] Describe the cost behavior in the wireless industry. What are the implications of this cost behavior for cost-volume-profit (CVP) relationships? Cost behavior is how a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s costs change given a change in that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Variable costs are costs that change proportionately with the changes in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. In contrast, the costs that do not change with a change in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities are known as fixed costs. In the case of AT&T, costs are focused primarily into the fixed category. This means that as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities shift, its costs remain relatively unchanged. This combination of high fixed costs and low cost variable costs gives AT&T and the rest of the industry a large amount of operating leverage. The high operating leverage of AT&T means that the company utilizes a higher risk strategy which leads to higher profits as volumes increase. Essentially, as long as AT&T maintains a volume that covers at least its fixed costs, any additional volume translates into profit. This works both ways however, if volume decreases below the threshold for covering fix ed costs then every decrease in volume yields proportionately equal losses. According to the case, there is little cost associated with text messaging. The case states that text messaging has an incredibly low variable cost, estimated at only a few cents per text. So basically, once AT&T has covered the cost of the required infrastructure to facilitate text messages, any revenues garnered from text message and virtually pure profit. 2. [5 points] What are the key cost drivers? Can a cost driver be used to continually raise prices? A cost driver is the root cause of why a cost occurs. For AT&T and the wireless industry there are several cost drivers. The most obvious ones in this case would be the number of texts sent per minute and the number of customers handled by the carrier. However, there are many more. These include the number of cell towers in the area and the amount of databaseÃ storage needed for handle the messages. In addition, individual cell phone plans and how many devices that are currently handled by a carrier in a given area are cost drivers. The primary cost driver used for the purpose of determining costs in this case is the amount of texts per minute. In this case, with its high fixed costs and low variable costs, any given change in volume will have little effect on costs. So, for AT&T, the cost drivers are unlikely to raise prices. However, this is not the case for all industries. If a company has high variable prices and low fixed prices we would expect the opposite. 3. [15 points] What does it cost AT&T to send a text message?[Consider costs of the channel, billing cost, storage cost] Based on this cost, what is AT&TÃ¢â¬â¢s profit margin as a percentage of its short message service (SMS) text messaging business? [Consider per-use pricing and package pricing] The case states that the average cost per voice minute is $0.07. From this the case determines that the equivalent amount of texts that can be sent, given the data transmission rates, is eighty-one. Thus the cost per text can be calculated as: $0.07 / 81 = $0.0008641 per text This, however, is not the total cost of a text. We must also factor in the costs of billing, databases, and storage. The case estimates the cost of billing at twice that of the wireless costs. Therefore we calculate the cost of billing as: $0.0008641 x 2 = $0.0017283 per text Database costs are estimated to be $10 million and AT&T is expected to carry 1% of the 3.5 trillion in world traffic. Knowing this we calculate the cost of storage as: $10 million / ( 3.5 trillion x .01) = $10 million / 35 billion = $.0002857Ã per text The cost of storage is assumed to be negligible in the case. However, I felt that it would still be interesting to calculate the cost. The case states the cost of storage to be $1,000 per terabyte and that worldwide traffic requires 1,343 terabytes of storage. Given that AT&T carries only 1% of the traffic storage costs can be calculated as: ($1,000 x (1343 Tb x .01) / 35 billion = $13,430 / 35 billion = $0.0000003837 The combined cost of sending a text is thus: $0.0008641 + $0.0017283 + $0.0002857 + $0.0000003737 = $0.002878 To calculate the profit margin, we simply divide gross profit by total revenue. We will take into account the profit margins for three of AT&TÃ¢â¬â¢s data plans. The per message plan which charge $0.20 per text, the $5.00 for 200 messages plan, and the $15 for 1500 messages plan. Per message plan: ($0.20 Ã¢â¬â $0.002878) / $0.20 = 98.56% $5 plan: (($5.00 / 200) Ã¢â¬â $0.002878) / ($5.00 / 200) = 88.49% $15 plan: (($15.00 / 1500) Ã¢â¬â $0.002878) / ($15.00 / 1500) = 71.22% 4. [5 points] How strong a relationship should exist between the price charged to a customer for a good or service and the cost of providing that good or service? Explain. It depends largely on the profit goals of any given company and can vary wildly depending on a number of factors such as whether a company is nonprofit or not. In the case of AT&T, the price should at least cover the cost of the product in order for the company to break even. Any amount greater than that will translate into profits. AT&T should price their products based on the supply and demand of the given products. For text messaging, the demand is massive and AT&T gauges their prices accordingly. However, I feel that a degree of morality should be taken into account. I know that in the business world morality is generally ignored in search of profits. But with text messaging, they are metaphorically printing money for themselves. The cost of sending a text message is infinitesimal compared to what they charge their customers. The sad truth is that as long as we remain willing to pay their price for the service they will continue to charge it. 5. [5 points] Why is the price that AT&T charges to transmit a kilobyte of data via text message so much higher than the price charged to transmit a kilobyte of data via a Smartphone? The price of text messaging is higher than simply transmitting data by smartphone largely because of supply and demand. The wireless industry prices their products based on demand. Currently, the demand for text messaging is high and still growing. Because of this prices remain high. Perhaps if the average consumer was more aware of the cost of texting this would change their preferences and cause the price to ultimately drop. Texts are not the only source of revenue for the wireless industry. For example, the industry also experiences revenues from sales of devices such as cell phones. The industry prices their devices in order to compete with others in the industry and this leads to low prices in the device market. The revenue from texts is used to offset the loss of potential revenues in the device market. 6. [10 points] What should the management of wireless firms seek to do now? Wireless firms should seek to improve their infrastructure to increase the capacity and efficiency of their networks. This would allow the firms to handle a larger amount of data and improved rates. This would, in turn, increase the amount of customers that the firms could service and would increase the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues. In the case of the wireless industry, an increase in revenues would likely lead to proportionately large increases in profits. The most efficient ways to improve the wireless infrastructure is to add additional towers and storage capabilities. According to the PCIA, revisions in networking policies would also help to achieve this goal. ByÃ allowing the wireless industry access to existing support structures such as towers, buildings, water tanks, and utility poles, the need for constructing expensive cell towers could be eliminated. In fact, the new generation of antenna systems no longer require the construction of older cell towers and are designed to be at tached to the previously mentioned pre-existing support structures.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Construction Management and Economics (April 2008) 26, 387Ã¢â¬â393 The impacts of change management practices on project change cost performance YI ZOU1 and SANG-HOON LEE2* 1 2 FMC Technologies Inc., Houston, USA Department of Engineering Technology, University of Houston, 304A Technology Bldg, University of Houston, Houston 77204, USA Received 18 June 2007; accepted 15 January 2008 Change cost is one of the most sensitive aspects of construction project management, but it is also one of the most difficult to control. It has been widely recognized that construction projects that adopt change management practices generally incur lower change costs in comparison with project budgets. The relationship between change managementÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Table 1 illustrates the demographic composition of the BMM database based on respondent type, project nature and industrial group. As can be seen in Table 1, most of the projects are in the heavy industry sector. Such an extremely uneven sample population distribution poses difficulty in the subsequent data analyses, and it is therefore one of the primary considerations when the analysis techniques are selected. Appendix II presents the 14 questions used in this research. Zou and Lee of projects (Construction Industry Institute, 2003). With all of these considerations, this research only focuses on the impacts of change management practice on project change cost performance. Research objectives It is worth noting that this research is to be explanatory instead of confirmative or predictive. In other words, the purpose of this research is to reveal potential correlations1 among project characteristics, change management practice and project change cost performance. The two main objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the effectiveness of individual change management practice elements in terms of improving project change cost performanceÃ¢â¬âe.g. for a particular change management practice element, could the construction project using it have a high probability of